Bodybuilding/nutrition tidbits of info………….
From the ISSN
To create weight loss or for bodybuilding prep, more energy must be expended than consumed. This can be accomplished by increasing caloric expenditure while reducing caloric intake. The size of this caloric deficit and the length of time it is maintained will determine how much weight is lost. Every pound of pure body fat that is metabolized yields approximately 3500 kcals, thus a daily caloric deficit of 500 kcals theoretically results in fat loss of approximately one pound per week if the weight loss comes entirely from body fat . However, a static mathematical model does not represent the dynamic physiological adaptations that occur in response to an imposed energy deficit
Satiety and fat loss generally improve with lower carbohydrate diets; specifically with higher protein to carbohydrate ratios [44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49]. In terms of performance and health, low carbohydrate diets are not necessarily as detrimental as typically espoused . In a recent review, it was recommended for strength athletes training in a calorically restricted state to reduce carbohydrate content while increasing protein to maximize fat oxidation and preserve LBM . However, the optimal reduction of carbohydrate and point at which carbohydrate reduction becomes detrimental likely needs to be determined individually.
it must be noted that there is a high degree of variability in the way that individuals respond to diets. Carbohydrate and fat utilization as a percentage of energy expenditure at rest and various intensities has as much as a four-fold difference between individual athletes; which is influenced by muscle fiber-composition, diet, age, training, glycogen levels and genetics . Additionally, individuals that are more insulin sensitive may lose more weight with higher-carbohydrate low-fat diets while those more insulin resistant may lose more weight with lower-carbohydrate higher-fat diets .
Table 1Dietary recommendations for bodybuilding contest preparation
Therefore, the urgency of glycogen resynthesis is almost an exclusive concern of endurance athletes with multiple glycogen-depleting events separated by only a few hours. Bodybuilders in contest preparation may exceed a single training bout per day (e.g., weight-training in the morning, cardio in the evening). However, bodybuilders do not have the same performance objectives as multi-stage endurance competition, where the same muscle groups are trained to exhaustion in a repeated manner within the same day. Furthermore, resistance training bouts are typically not glycogen-depleting. High-intensity (70-80% of 1 RM), moderate-volume (6–9 sets per muscle group) bouts have been seen to reduce glycogen stores by roughly 36-39%
Creatine monohydrate (CM) has been called the most ergogenic and safe supplement that is legally available . Supplementation of healthy adults has not resulted in any reported adverse effects or changes in liver or kidney function . Numerous studies have found significantly increased muscle size and strength when CM was added to a strength training program [130, 131, 132, 133, 134]. In many of these studies, 1-2 kg increases in total body mass were observed after CM loading of 20 g/day for 4–28 days . However, the loading phase may not be necessary. Loading 20 g CM per day has been shown to increase muscle total creatine by approximately 20 percent and this level of muscle creatine was maintained with 2 g CM daily for 30 days . However, the same study also observed a 20 percent increase in muscle creatine when 3 g CM was supplemented daily for 28 days, indicating the loading phase may not be necessary to increase muscle creatine concentrations.